Dossiês em preparação
2008 / 2009
dph participa da coredem
07 / 1994
Khuda Ki Basti (KKB), meaning God’s Colony, represents a pioneering attempt on the part of Hyderabad Development Authority (HDA)to solve the housing problems of the lowest stratum of the urban poor. This scheme has been developed on a site near the Hyderabad Toll Plaza, in Kotri, which stretches over 5 500 acres with a lay out for 70 000 plots. Its objective is to help the shelterless acquire legal titles to residential lots, with a minimum affordable down payment, where the families can immediately construct their houses.
Target group identification and plot allotment consists of four steps : 1/ Identification of families earning about $ 50 per month and in urgent need of housing. 2/ Selection of applicants who are lodged in two types of reception areas : an open land where the family can install a make-shift house or two rooms ’pucca’ (concrete)house with latrine and in-house water tap ; the families are kept in the reception area for a minimum period of one week. 3/ Assessment of eligibility by the HDA. 4/ The eligible families are allotted a regular plot of 80 square yards.
The basic shelter package comprises three main components : 1/ The plot, with the availability of potable water at public transport and a W.C. with sanitary latrine. 2/ Compulsory savings in the form of a regular monthly instalment, preferably through a bank account operated jointly by designated representatives of residents and sponsors of the scheme. 3/ A bulk contribution by the residents for the desired level and type of services as per preference or priority assigned by them.
The concept of financial affordability is characterized by two main features : a minimum down payment fixed at $ 50 to cover the basic shelter package cost and regular monthly instalments of $ 2.50 to $ 5.00, based on affordability of the beneficiaries, towards the total cost of the plot amounting to $ 450.
Community participation is organized at block level (a block consists of about 200 houses)on a bottom up approach. The HDA opens up a dialogue with the community through a direct interface, identifies the potential leaders and entrusts them with the task of motivation and mobilization.
At the initial stage of the scheme, decisions regarding the provision of various types of services, the allocation of funds, the level of services and their spatial distribution, were taken with the active and direct participation of the residents during open meetings. With the growth of the population, participation has been exercised through representation by those elected during meetings of the residents and HDA officials.
The development of services is undertaken by the skilled labour from the community which ensures economy and better workmanship and provides jobs opportunities for the residents.
Community participation as such is ensured from the planning and execution stages, maintenance and cost recovery. Separate accounts are maintained for each block and are operated by the block’s nominee and HDA project manager. HDA assists in the preparation of estimates. Block organizations are also responsible for maintaining the services and action against defaulters and absentees.
The construction of houses is flexible. It must be started immediately after allotment of the plot. [...]. No rigid or conventional planning or building regulations are applied and the house builders can use concrete, mud, reed or even cardboard as building materials, depending upon their affordability. The structures can be improved, modified or extended as the financial capability of the family improves.
The approach is also based on the development of self employment and income generation. A Family Enterprises Scheme has been launched. HDA has obtained a bulk loan of $ 0.25 million from the House Building Finance Corporation for improving existing house structures as well as for income-generating schemes. The loans are provided through the block organization which disburses the loans after ascertaining the needs and repayment capacity of the individual applicant. The recovery percentage is over 95 %.
Institutional support is important. Apart from involvement of the concerned agencies for infrastructure and services, several other agencies have contributed significantly in providing various types of activities [...].
The KKB scheme completed three years of its existence on 2nd November 1989. 3 826 plots were allotted for the KKB, out of which 2 094 have already been constructed. Under the Family Enterprises Scheme, which started in February 1989, a sum of $ 8 385 had been advanced in loans ranging between $ 55 to $ 940. This has generated employment for 117 persons (including 48 women). The rate of recovery of these loans has been over 90 %. These achievements should be viewed in contrast to the rest of the Gulshan-i-Iqbal scheme, in which, by March 1988, almost 11 600 plots had been provided by the public sector and 1 000 acres of land given to the cooperative societies : but neither construction on allotted plots nor any development scheme by cooperative societies had been initiated.
Maximum encouragement is provided to the residents to provide services and utilities for their homes on a do-it-yourself basis, particularly for sanitation, garbage disposal, electricity and even road-building. However, so far, a network of 49 500 feet of water supply lines, 18 850 feet sewerage lines and 13 500 of electricity lines have been provided in the scheme.
Regarding educational facilities, 23 schools of various levels are already functioning in KKB with a total enrollment of 872 students and 43 teachers. Health services are being provided in the area by 5 private doctors, 5 para-professionals, 2 clinics, 3 mobile clinics and an ambulance. Small-scale enterprises provide transport between KKB and Hyderabad besides government buses [...].
[...]According to the HDA, the entire scheme is self-financed.
This case study is an edited version of the text which appeared in : Guidelines on Community-Based Housing Finance and Innovation Credit Systems for Low-Income Households, Bangkok, ESCAP, 1990. Translated into French, following card.
ESCAP=ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC, ESCAP, 1990/11 (THAILAND)
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