09 / 1995
Similar to other Indonesian towns and cities, Surabaya developed through two different paterns. The first city was formed by a conglomeration of Kampungs (villages)guided by traditional Javanese cosmological norms of town plannings. The other city was built later the colonial government which established themselves in the late 19th Century, according to the formal Western model, basically as a trading post.
When Indonesia gained its independence in the early 50s, many freedom fighters and refugees returned to their respective cities. The city were not ready to accommodate all of them. Some found a place in the destroyed kampungs.
The occupation was carried out on afairly orderly and equitable basis with each family allocated only one plot with about 4 to 5 by 8 to 10 meters. Almost everyone was accommodated. This type of kampungs is about one third of the existing kampungs and houses about 750,000 people. The earlier type of kampungs houses which housed around one and a half million people were formed by densifying and expanding the existing villages.
The earlier kampungs were not squatter areas. Through the Kampung Improvement Program (KIP), the basic urban services have been introduced to most of theses areas. Government officially acknowledge the existence of the kampungs as an integral part of the city housing system. Improvement in the housing units of the residents of the kampungs were significant. The average housing area occupied by each of the residents, that is, the per capita housing area, is over 15 square meter and most of the houses are owner occupied.
Surabaya was the first city in Indonesia to implement a pre-war Kampung Improvement Program. Two years later, this program was already supported with the participation of the kampung people themselves. After the war, two types of KIPs were simultaneously implemented, namely the W.R. Supratman KIP and the IBRD-assisted KIP which was finished in 1990.
The W.R. Supratman KIP
The first W.R. Supratman KIP was initiated in 1968. For 5 years, the Municipal Government of Surabaya provided concrete slabs and gutters to improve the footpaths and drains in the Kampungs.
Local people have to elect the members of a development committee. Its task was to request the number of slabs and gutters needed. These slabs and gutters were given free of charge but the community have to install these themselves. In 1974, the assistance was changed into cash but the basic approach remained the same. The local people prepare the development plan and raise the local counterpart which is often about half of the total construction cost. The other half is shouldered by the Municipality. This program has developed around 56 sites.
IBRD assisted KIP
An overall study in all existing Kampungs and fringe villages in Surabaya was carried out by the Surabaya Institute of Technology. The study prepared an overall priority listing of kampungs eligible for improvements. The components in the improvement program mainly consist of a vehicular road network, footpaths, drainage, public baths and toilets and water supply. Education and health facilities were included in program.
To discourage the replacement of the residents of the Kampungs by those with higher income, vehicular roadways were kept at minimum level of urban circulation standards with a width of about 3 meters. The development plan was reviewed by local Kampungs elders who discussed the plan with the people. Adjustments were made based on the proposals from the local communities provided these did not exceed the available budget.
Housing improvement loans and walk-up flats
An impact evaluation of the program conducted in 1984 revealed that there is an average of 15% pockets of stagnant development in already improved kampungs. Two approaches were accordingly introduced.
The first approach provided housing improvement loan through cooperatives in the Kampungs while the other approach was for the construction of walk-up flats for more dense areas.
Walk-up flat were first built in Indonesia in the 50s. In 1980, flats were again constructed but like in the first occasion in had little success. Some of the flats remained empty for a long time. Others deteriorated due to poor maintenance. The flats were heavily subsidized and many of them were taken over by higher income people. This was also the case in Surabaya. The Surabaya Institute of Technology carried out a 4-year research on the walk up habitats that could match the perception and the way of life of the people. In 1988, the government had available funds to improve a slum pocket with 180 households, 60% of which were renters. After long discussions with the related municipal departments and the people, plans which incorporated the suggestions of the people were drawn.
The Kampung Improvement Program (KIP)in Surabaya is an example of an incremental development approach where people participate in improving their housing environment little by little, according to their available resources. The initiative came from the Government but the people actively participated in the planning and financing of the program.
Data card carried out for the governmentT/NGO cooperation project in the field of human settlement.
ANZORENA, Eduardo Jorge, SELAVIP, Housing the poor, the Asian Experience, The Asian Coalition of Housing Rights, 1993/01 (PHILIPPINES)