09 / 1995
Background of the IHA-UDP Project
Kebele 41, Keftegna 3, integrated slum upgrading project was launched in July 1981. Through the World Bank study the poorest 8 Kebeles in the Teklehaimanot area were identified, Kebele 41 was one of them (as Kebele 43, 42 and 30). The NGO Redd Barna (Norwegian Save The Children) spent over 3,000,000 Birr (approx. £ 1.000.000) to upgrade 4,000 population of Kebele 41. The project phased out in December 1986. Kebele 41 was the first integrated urban development project in Addis Ababa. A few attempts were made to replicate the idea. During the period Kebele 41, staff were working in the area the 5 neighbouring poor Kebeles (Kebeles 29 and 40, Kebeles 30, 42 and 43) requested for the expansion of services existing in Kebele 41.
Objectives and approach
The aim of the IHA-UDP is to improve the quality of life through a community based integrated holistic approach which addresses the multiple inter-related need of the community at the root. To leave communities self-sufficient with sustainable means so as to maintain the development process after the project phases out in 5 years.
The approach is to help the process of human development through concientization so as to change fatalistic attitude. To create social awareness and enhance participation in their own development programmes so as to help them participate in prioritizing and implementation of programs.
The four major components of the programme are:
- Physical upgrading: this program replaces condemned houses and self demolished houses. The rents of the house built by the project are collected into a special revolving fund in order to sustain repair work when needed. Roads, alley or bridges are primarily City Council responsability.
- Community Development: this aims at creating awareness and conscientize the communities so as to empower and enable them to regain self-respect, dignity as well as self sufficiency.
- Income generating: Guarantees job creation for the poorest who have never been employed or cannot hold jobs.
- Health: The Primary Health Care eight components: health, education, mother and child health, nutrition, vaccination, safe and clean water, environment health, etc..
2 major elements in sustainability issues are human resources and income resources, both of which the project attempts to work at. Before phasing sustainability is guaranteed through careful phase out plan, concentrated effort in training and involving community members and generating income to cover programmes that are not generating incomes.
The project extended its work to Kebele 30, 42 and 43 and utilized Kebele 41 existing programmes by up-scalling it to benefit not only 4,200 people (population of Kebele 41) but now covering 30,000 people for its entire programmes. However, 42,000 people are included (Kebele 29 and 40) for its health programmes.
However housing is n°1 priority out of the 11 top priorities the community has expresses as felt need. For that reason the project budget takes that into consideration in the planning process. Housing get the largest portion of the total budget.
- An official agreement was signed with the City Council (Addis Ababa Regional Office) in february 1989. The actual work began in June 1989.
- The research which used both qualitative and quantitative data to back-up its points convinced first some Britsh International NGOs and ODA to give sizeable grants in 1989. Since the additional major western donors and government (Sweden and Netherlands) from several countries contribute to the projects 52 programmes which are under 3 components: Primary Health Care, Physical Up-grading and Community Development.
- The communities: The target groups in the project are the poorest member of the communities who are usually the last in the order of priority to benefit from aid givers.
Role of the Community based organization
The project is community based and therefore plans are made on felt need prioritization base. It also promotes awareness creation on the line of Paulo Friere’s concientization philosophy. The grassroot neighbourhood group consist of both men and women who are also being concientize as the project believes that human resources are as essential as financial resources to insure sustainable development. The grassroot neighbourhood groups play major role in final decision making re-building and future supervision of houses that are built.
Integrated holistic approach is not gender or group biased but attempting to alleviate poverty by attacking the root cause. However, its unique proportion of 75% women headed household automatically gives women maximum benefit.
Whenever possible the project takes advantages of existing government and NGO structures and links programme for economical and sustenance reasons. e.g. the Teklehaimanot Clinic has given free vaccination using the Kebele 41 Health Post as an out reach permanent centre since 1982 and the Family planning association has given free service for 8 years.
One unique situation in the relationship between The Municipality and the project is the policy of rent collection for newly built houses and houses which have had major repair done. The rents of these house are collected in special accounts and not into government treasury. This will insure covering repair costs in the future for the house built by the project, as well as helping repair the few that were seen, by the project as not needing immediate attention during the period the project is operating.
Finally, the project has tried to correct some of the problems identified in the building procedures in the area. Theses problems are absence of kitchens and relationship of toilets to kitchens and houses. Within the available spaces accommodating the essential services also needed back-up sanitation programmes. The project has attempted to address to community felt needs of dry waste disposal programmes as well as the service of suction trucks which has relieved the community form overflooded latrines running into homes or into kitchens.
Data card carried out for the governmentT/NGO cooperation project in the field of human settlement.
TEFERRA, Jember, INTEGRATED HOLISTIC APPROACH-URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, 1995/07 (ETHIOPIA)